Major US pharmacies1
have restricted sales of baby formula in response to a worsening shortage of the special milk.
CVS and Walgreens are among the big chains to have imposed limits in recent weeks on how many cans customers can buy at a time.
The shortages intensified2
after Abbott - which makes top brand Similac - shut a key factory and issued a recall in February after finding contamination.
Republicans, such as Senator Tom Cotton, have called it a "national crisis" that the White House must address.
Abbott issued the recall of certain batches3
of powdered formula in February after reports that four babies who had been fed from cans from the factory became sick, including two who died.
The Centers for Disease Control and Protection said they were investigating a possible link, but that testing so far had found the strain of bacteria detected at the factory did not match that found in the sickened babies.
Separately, the FDA criticised Abbott for unsanitary conditions.
But the shortage pre-dates those issues and has been building since last year due to supply chain and other factors, according to research firm Datasembly, which tracks 11,000 stores across the US.
As of 24 April, the average out-of-stock rate across the country had jumped to 40%, up from just 30% a few weeks earlier - and 11% in November, according to Datasembly.
There were 26 states with out of stock rates higher than 40% - compared to just seven states three weeks earlier, it said.
"Due to increased demand and various supplier challenges, infant and toddler formulas are seeing constraint6
across the country," the major pharmacy7
chain Walgreens said in a statement.
Walgreens has limited families to buying three cans at a time - similar to other retailers8
. A 12.4 ounce can of formula typically lasts for about 15 bottles - or just a few days' worth of supply.
Companies that produce items like baby formula - in which demand is typically steady over time - have troubles catching9
up when there is disruption, said Rudi Leuschner, director of the masters in supply chain management programme at Rutgers Business School.
And as parents rush to buy as stories of empty shelves spread, that only makes the problem worse, he warned.
Overall, birth rates are falling, reaching the lowest point on record in the US in 2020. Studies have also found that consumption of infant formula has been declining in favour of breast milk.